Death Of 10 Year Old Girl After Fighting In School Does Memory Reside Inside the Brain

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Does Memory Reside Inside the Brain

On June 2, 2005, NBC Philadelphia had an interesting report. At the age of 8, Christina Sainthouse had contracted a virus that caused a rare brain disorder known as Rasmussen syndrome. And her doctor had to perform a hemispherectomy on her, except for half of her brain. After 10 years, Kristina was about to graduate from high school with honors. After the operation, she had a slight limp and her left arm did not work at all. She had also lost her peripheral vision, but was otherwise a normal teenager. A similar case was reported in the Telegraph (UK) on 29 May 2002, a girl named Bursa had the same disorder and had her left brain removed when she was 3 years old, she was fluent in Dutch and Turkish when she was 7 years. In 1987, A. Smith reported that one hemispherectomy patient graduated from college, attended graduate school, and scored above average on intelligence tests. Studies have found no significant long-term effects on memory, personality, or humor after the procedure, and minimal changes in overall cognitive function.

The outcome of hemispherectomy is amazing. Neuroscience shows that memory is stored in neurons in the brain. If this assumption is true, removing half the brain would destroy a person’s memory if the memory was stored in a neural network structure, as one school of cognitive physiology suggests, or at least destroy half the memory if bits of memory information are stored within the individual. neurons in the brain, as suggested by another school of cognitive neuroscience. But it is obvious that the results do not fit either explanation. Removing part of the brain has been one of the standard surgical procedures for severe epilepsy and has been performed thousands of times. Many of the results are quite similar to those of hemispherectomy.

The orthodox explanation for the observation is that the information stored in the infected areas of the brain is duplicated in the healthy part of the brain before the operation. This rationalization is still inadequate when considering how brain surgery is performed. To make sure the infection does not spread, the surgeon must remove the infected area and some surrounding healthy tissue, sometimes much larger tissue than the infected area. If the information stored in the infected areas is reproduced somewhere in the brain before a surgical procedure, some of the information is still lost when the surrounding healthy brain tissue is removed, so memory will suffer.

It is not observed after surgery. Therefore, it must be assumed that the memory stored in adjacent healthy tissue is replicated in other parts of the brain. This raises the question: How does the brain know how much healthy tissue will be removed? If the brain does not know, the operations will inevitably destroy some of the memory. The idea that memory is stored in the brain (neurons or neural network) apparently contradicts the findings of brain surgery.

In the 1920s, Carl Lashley conducted a series of experiments trying to determine which part of the brain stores memory. He trained rats to find their way through a maze and then created lesions in various parts of the cerebral cortex in an attempt to erase traces of its original memory. His experimental animals were still able to find their way through the maze regardless of where he caused the damage in their brains. Therefore, he concluded that memories are not stored in any one area of ​​the brain, but are distributed throughout it. Partitioning the memory of each individual event across the entire brain is energetically inefficient and mathematically impossible. If his reasoning is not limited to the brain, the logical conclusion should be that memory is not stored in the brain.

Instincts are apparently innate, and no one has a clue where the information that makes up instincts is stored, and cognitive memory is thought to be acquired through experience and stored by changing signaling chemicals in brain neurons.

New research reveals that even cognitive memory can be inherited. A study by Larry Feig of Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston suggests that mouse mothers who receive mental training before pregnancy can pass their cognitive advantages to their offspring, even when there is no direct contact between the mothers and their offspring. It is clear that young people do not acquire cognitive memory through experience, and young people have no obvious way to store information in their neurons, so where do young people get their memory from? Maybe where they store their instinct information from, a place no one knows yet.

“Areas of the brain such as the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, or mammillary bodies are thought to be involved in certain types of memory. For example, the hippocampus is thought to be involved in spatial and declarative learning, while the amygdala is thought to be associated with emotional memory. Lesions to specific areas in patients and animal models and subsequent memory deficits are the primary source of information. However, rather than affecting a specific area, it may be that damage to a pathway that traverses that area is actually responsible for the observed deficits.” (excerpt from http://www.wikipedia.com). If someone keeps all their belongings in a warehouse connected to their house by a highway, they wouldn’t be able to get anything out of the warehouse if the highway was demolished. To conclude from the facts that everything is stored on the highway, he can’t get anything when the highway is cut off is ridiculous. Even though the connection between the brain and memory is well established, it is not logical to conclude that memory resides in the brain.

Wilder Penfield was a pioneer in associating a particular type of memory with a particular area of ​​the brain. When he operated to remove certain types of temporal lobe loci that caused epilepsy, he made the revolutionary discovery that his patients, who were not anesthetized (with local pain blockers), could listen and answer his questions while their temporal lobe . was operated on. Indeed, the patient’s verbal feedback was an essential requirement for Penfield to determine that he was cutting out the exact part of the brain that was causing the neurological symptoms he was treating. He will insert an electrode into the patient’s brain and provide electrical stimulation to see how the patient responds.

One of Penfield’s patients heard a particular selection of music being played by an orchestra “when a point on the upper surface of the right temporal lobe was stimulated after the anterior half of the lobe was removed.” The sound was so clear that the patient believed there was a record player in the operating room. As the same point was re-stimulated (without withdrawing the electrode, only pausing and re-applying the electrical stimulus), the music started at the same place where it had started before.

When Penfield withheld the electrode, the patient heard nothing. He found that the patient could not guess what would happen after the electrode was removed. “LG saw a person struggling. When the point was re-stimulated, he saw a person and a dog walking down the road.” Often the memory cannot be recalled.

Early in his career in brain surgery, Penfield argued that memory must be stored somewhere in the brain, and the stimulus opened the floodgates of the memory river. His work led to many studies linking memory and emotion to a specific brain area. Penfield’s continued research convinced him that memory could not exist in the brain. He and his colleague reported that removing more of the cortex after brain injury increased IQ. In one case, he was surprised to learn that his patient’s IQ increased from 75 to 80-95 after he performed extensive bilateral prefrontal lobe removal. William Cone reported a similar result after removing part of his patient’s brain. Penfield’s continued work, particularly with the hippocampus and cortex, had changed his views on the brain, consciousness, and the mechanism of memory. He belatedly proposed that the interpretive cortex of the temporal lobe acts as a bridge, and the hippocampus holds the “access keys” to those experiences recorded in the past that lie somewhere outside the brain.

Philosopher William James had a technically different but very similar view of consciousness to Penfield. He believed that consciousness operates through the brain rather than the brain creating consciousness. The idea that consciousness is separate from the body has a long tradition of Western thinkers. Plato depicted the earthly body as a limiting factor for conscious experience. Kant pointed to the body as “an imposition on our pure spiritual life.” The idea became a proposition called the transmission hypothesis — that the brain and body serve not as creators of consciousness but as trans-receivers of it. The evidence cited in support of this hypothesis is mostly from commonly considered non-scientific fields such as psychedelic research, psi effects, after-death experiences, etc. As a result, this hypothesis is poorly received in philosophical and scientific circles. But that doesn’t mean they’re wrong because, given the facts above, separating consciousness from the body might be a very sensible thing to do.

Since memory does not reside in the brain, the functions of the brain must be re-examined. Perhaps the brain acts as a bridge to consciousness, as suggested by Penfield, or as a trance-receiver as suggested by William James. The similarity between the two is obvious, with the brain being the only pathway to consciousness and memory in both cases. The importance of the brain in memory has been confirmed by many critical studies throughout history. But there is a lack of evidence that the brain is the only organ involved in memory, on the contrary, some evidence suggests that the heart may also be involved in memory.

Does the heart have a memory? The issue has been around for years. The question arises again after years of transplanting a heart or other organs into a person and noticing some changes in the recipients. After a heart transplant, some recipients have noticed profound changes in their personality. Some people have an overwhelming need to consume Mexican food when this type of cuisine has never been popular. Others develop a sudden love for football when the sport was previously hated.

How can these phenomena be explained? Can the heart really feel, think and remember? The answer could explain how a person processes memory.

Rollin MacCraty of the University of California Hearthmath has developed tests that show how the heart processes information. His tests showed that the heart responded before the brain when faced with an emotional event. He concluded that the heart must have the capacity to process emotional data.

Linking the heart to memory is a legitimate proposition based on these findings. But there is no medical evidence to suggest that switching to a mechanical heart causes memory loss. This means that the memory is not stored in the heart. Could it be because this heart does not store memory but is a gateway to memory? What memory can be accessed through the heart? Or are other organs gateways to limited memory? These questions call for extending the study of memory to a much wider domain than the brain.

The inevitable question is, if the memory is not in the brain, where does the memory go? The short answer is: we don’t know. Scientific activity has always been the search for evidence to support a logical conclusion derived from a general theory. If the general theory is fundamentally flawed, scientific progress will stop and wait for compelling evidence to overturn the general theory. Only from there will science flourish again on a new basis. Materialism has been very successful in raising living standards and scientific issues. Recent research in quantum mechanics suggests that reality might not be materialism at a fundamental level. Memory can be in a physical form that we do not know or find outside of our physical world. Let’s wait for new evidence to emerge.

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